Hello. I was wondering about the information on the Gospel of Barnabas. I’d like to know who after this site and from which point of view was the gospel taken. I couldn’t find about the writer or the author? Another question please, how can the author judge the language of the bible and even the pope wasn’t able to read it because turkey didn’t show it for him? Thanks.
First of all, I need to be sure we are talking about the correct document. There are two literary pieces which have been attributed to Barnabas. There is the Epistle of Barnabas and there is the Gospel of Barnabas. These two are extremely different. The have almost nothing in common. About the only thing they have in common is that neither was written by the biblical person named Barnabas.
The Epistle of Barnabas is a very late first-century (or perhaps very early second century) document written by an orthodox Christian (in other words, its teaching is generally in line with New Testament teaching). It is not inspired and has never been accepted as inspired, although there were some in the second and third century who recommended it to be read. I cover the Epistle of Barnabas in my book on Church History. I highly recommend you get a copy of this book. (The Christian Story, available at www.ipibooks.com) I will copy and paste the little section on the Epistle of Barnabas below. Skip below for my comments on the Gospel of Barnabas.
The Epistle of Barnabas
The Epistle of Barnabas was considered by many in the early church an inspired letter. We do not know the date when this letter was composed, but we can be assured that it was not written by Barnabas the companion of Paul on his first missionary journey. The content of the book narrows the date of composition down somewhat, but not to our satisfaction. Scholars seem to agree that it was written some time between the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 and the Bar Kochba rebellion in AD 132, after which any hope of a rebuilt temple in Jerusalem was almost certainly lost. Most likely it was written after AD 100. The book takes a strongly allegorical view of Old Testament, which is why scholars tend to think the author may have been from Alexandria, where allegorical interpretation became dominant at a very early date. The author cites Matthew and Mark and quotes extensively and rather freely from the Old Testament, along with IV Esdras and Enoch—apocryphal books which many in the early church took to be part of the inspired OT canon. Along with The Shepherd of Hermas (see below), the Epistle of Barnabas was included at the end of the manuscript known as Codex Sinaiticus. Sinaiticus is, arguably, the most reliable manuscript we have, being an entire Greek copy of the Old and the New Testaments from about AD 350. This fact shows the importance given to the Epistle of Barnabas by the early church.
The theme of the book is that Jewish forms of religion have never been what God had in mind. The purpose of the author seems to be to oppose any tendency for the church to maintain a Jewish identity. Two rather strong trends in the second century are easily detected in this book. The first is the tendency of the church fathers, especially those in the school of Alexandria, toward free allegorical interpretation of scripture. Allegorical interpretation allows one to read between the lines of the obvious literal historical meaning of texts to find hidden symbolic meanings. The problem with this spiritualizing of the scripture is that it allows the imaginative interpreter to read just about anything desired into the biblical text.
There is a second tendency in the second and third century church which is represented in the Epistle of Barnabas. The writer of Barnabas wanted the church to almost completely repudiate its Jewish roots. This tendency only increased after the second Jewish rebellion, also known as the bar Kochba Rebellion in AD 132. After this tragedy all hope for a revitalized Jewish state in Palestine seemed to have disappeared. Eventually we will be able to extrapolate this trend to an embarrassing anti-Semitism within the church. This distinctly unchristian behavior included church leaders laying the blame for the death of Jesus on the Jews. The writer of the Epistle of Barnabas did not go this far. The lack of strong and clear reasoning, as well as the unfounded allegorizing of the Old Testament text make one wonder that many in the early church considered the possibility of including this book in the canon of the New Testament.
The writing called the Gospel of Barnabas is something completely different. Unlike the Epistle of Barnabas, there is no evidence that this is an ancient document. The first mention of the document with the title the Gospel of Barnabas comes from a Muslim writer from present-day Tunisia, written about 1634. The manuscript was discovered in Madrid. There is no evidence whatsoever that this “gospel” was ever written in Greek. The evidence is that what is called the Gospel of Barnabas is a rewriting of the four gospels whose purpose was to create a version of the story of Jesus friendly to Islamic thinking. In other words, the Gospel of Barnabas is a revision, from well over a thousand years after the events, which was produced as a sort of Muslim apologetic. For example, it supports the false claim of Muslims that the prophecy of Jesus about the coming of the Holy Spirit in John 14 and John 16 is actually a prophecy of the coming of Mohammed. Clearly, any difference between the Gospel of Barnabas and the true biblical gospels was put there for the very purpose of supporting Islam. This document is of historical interest to understand how Muslims tried to fit the sayings in the Qu’ran into a biblical framework, but we cannot take it seriously as a Christian document, given that it was created in an attempt to convert people from Christianity or to prevent Muslims from converting to Christianity.
By the way, there was mention in the sixth century of an apocryphal “Gospel of Barnabas” but no copy or even quote from this document has ever been found and there is not the slightest indication that the Muslim-inspired Gospel of Barnabas is even related to this apocryphal book.
About your second question, I am afraid I may need you to explain your question further. I have a feeling you have been reading material at an Islamic anti-Christian web site. I suggest you take such material with a giant grain of salt. Unfortunately, most (but not all) supposed Muslim “apologists” do an incredibly bad job of giving unbiased sources about Christianity in order to defend Islam. I cannot imagine how it is relevant whether a pope was given access to documents in Turkey. The fact is that we have Greek manuscripts of the entire New Testament from the early fourth century and dozens of partial manuscripts of the New Testament from the second and third centuries. For this reason, whether any particular pope was able to see any particular manuscript in Turkey is completely irrelevant to our knowledge of the Greek New Testament. There was not anything like a modern pope before the fifth century or later and we have much older manuscripts of the Greek New Testament. We have entire Greek New Testaments from three hundred years before Muhammad wrote the Qu’ran, so any claims by Muhammad or by Muslims that it was changed are really quite ridiculous. We have thousands of Greek manuscripts and our access to the genuine original Greek of the New Testament documents is essentially perfect, despite false claims to the contrary by certain Islamic scholars who want to confuse the facts in order to push a particular agenda.
Please, if you will, can you send me details of this claim that some pope was not given access to some part of the Bible by someone in Turkey? Turkey did not even exist until about the 13th century, so it is hard to be sure what you are referring to. I want to respond to the particular allegation, so please go to the original web site where you found this or send me the web address so that I can respond.
PS Since posting this answer I learned that there is a fairly recent discovery of an ancient manuscript which was found in the hands of an illegal antiquities smuggler in Turkey. Apparently, the Turkish government has not made the document publicly available for some unknown reason. The lack of information on this document has given space to unscrupulous Muslims to speculate that this is because the so-far mysterious document is a copy of the long-lost supposed Gospel of Barnabas. The problem with this speculation is that there is absolutely NO EVIDENCE that it is true. It is sheer speculation, being made to push an anti-Christian agenda by unscrupulous people. This is shameful behavior which should be condemned by all good-hearted Muslims.