In your section on the 10 horns-the 11th being Domitian, what historical
sources can you site that show that Vespesian and/or Domitian subdued Otho
and Galba? I have only been able to find sources for Vitellius’s overthrow
by armed forces who supported Vespesian. Could the three who were subdued
actually be ordinal… For example, the little horn subdues the 3rd King,
instead of all 3?


One source I have used recently is Michael Grant, “The Roman Emperors: A
Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Imperial Rome 31 B.C. – A.D. 476.” It
is true that we only have direct evidence of Domitian helping to defeat
Vitellius. The source above specifically mentions Domitian’s part in
defeating Vitellius. I would agree with you that it may be more accurate
to say that Domitian defeated the third of “the three.” Daniel 7:8 has
“three of the first horns uprooted before it.” I am confident that this
is a reference to “the three” (i.e. Galba Otho and Vitellius). The exact
meaning of “uprooted before it” is unclear, of course, but I still see the
replacement of these three by Vespasian as an amazing fulfillment of
Daniel’s prophecy. I just taught on this subject this past weekend. Next
time, I will be a bit more careful about how I describe this event based
on your input!

John Oakes

Comments are closed.