Cro-Magnon lived up to 100,000 and Neanderthal up to 300,000 years ago.
What was the most recent dates for those species and when were they
extinct? What year was Homo-Sapien on the scene – 45,000 years ago? Cain
was the first agricultural farmer as far as evidence in the Bible, were
the Homo-Sapiens the first also to show agricultural advancements and
intelligence? If so, does this help us to date Adam?

According to anthropologists, we are Cro-Magnon. Cro-Magnon are modern
humans–homo sapiens. Therefore, obviously, Cro-Magnon never went extinct!
You will see a wide variety of opinions on Neanderthal among
anthropologists. Some see them as a sub-species of modern humans, and even
believe that there was interbreeding and that the two species did not have
a definite dividing line. Others (the more popular opinion, if I
understand it correctly) believe that they were always very separate
species. If opinion #1 is correct, it is not possible to state when
Neanderthal disappeared, but rather Neanderthal gradually were subsumed in
the modern human population. By the second opinion, Neanderthal
disappeared somewhere around 30,000-25,000 years ago. There is zero
evidence that Neanderthal farmed in the traditional sense, although they
did have fairly simple tools, and there is some evidence of primitive
art-like activity and so forth. If you relate the first true human in the
biblical sense to agricultural activity, such as that of Cain, then you
would tend to conclude that the first humans were Cro-Magnon, ie modern
humans. If that is true, then Neanderthals were not human in the biblical
sense. I personally believe that it will not be possible to reach an
absolutely definitive answer to such questions, and suggest that believers
not be too dogmatic about these issues.

John Oakes, Ph.D.

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