ISLAM (literally, submit the will in Arabic)
Founder: Muhammad. About 570 ? 632 AD, in Mecca, in modern Saudi Arabia.
Roughly 1 billion Muslims in the world.
Location: Northern Africa, almost the entire Middle East, Pakistan Afghanistan,
Bangaladesh, India, Albania, Indonesia and the Phillipines, with scatterings
Arabiavery pagan, polytheistic. Many gods, idols worshipped at Mecca.
.In Meccathere were four main pagan gods: Allah, Allat, al Uzza and Manat.
Allah worshiped at a pagan temple with a large black meteorite, still known
as the Ka?bah. This is where Muslims make their pilgrimage.
Mohammed decided to keep only Allah as the one God. Allah is an idol!!!!! Islam is monotheistic
A vision of angel Gabriel at age of 40 AD 610 Called to be a prophet to the Arabs
Small # of converts
Expelled from Meccain 622 AD (The Hejira)
Moved to Medina, began to make converts, became de facto ruler of Medina.
Sponsored raiding parties on caravans, especially those from Meccato revenge
his rejection there.
Made enemies of Jews in Medina
Massacred 700 male Jews
Ultimately, because of his raids on Meccan caravans, had three battles. First a draw,
second a defeat, but third resulted in him conquering Mecca.
Wealth grew, had at least 13 wives plus concubines (up to 15?)
After conquering Mecca, a number of battles, conquered most of Arabia
Died, AD 632.
No miracles, not raised from the dead. Died in the normal way.
Scriptures: The Qur?an (Koran) Written all or in part by Muhammad. The original has been
edited extensively over the years. Nevertheless, there is a strong link back to the
original writings of Muhammad.
80% the length of the New Testament
Written in 114 ?suras? treatises arranged in order from longest to shortest.
No clear order to the suras in terms of chronological order or teaching.
Very repetitious. Apparently, when Muhammad wrote, he did not have in mind to create a
single compiled book.
Three apparent periods for the writing of the Koran which are reflected in the
content and philosophy of the writings.
Early Meccan period. Arguments for there being only one god?for Allah being that one
Mecca/Medina period. Muhammad had more exposure to Judaism. Seeks to make Allah equivalent
to the God of the Old Testament. Stories about Abraham, Moses, Noah, etc.
Later Medinaperiod. Muhammad has massacred many Jews. Islam is now a religion to
stand on its own. Muhammad wants a book uniquely for the Arabs which would be equivalent
to the Bible. Abraham called a Muslim. Hints that eventually Islam would be the enemy,
not the friend of ?peoples of the book.? (Jews or Christians). Ex: Surah 5:63 God turns
some Jews into apes and pigs.
Surah 21:33. The sun orbits the earth.
Surah 12 mentions 11 planets.
Surah 34:9, Surah 52:44 A piece of the sky falls and kills someone.
Surah 34:11 King David makes an iron coat of mail.
Praying toward the Ka?bah five times a day. Originally, Muslims prayed toward
Jerusalem, but later Muhammad changed that. All good Muslims must make a pilgrimage
to Meccaat some time in their life. Observance of Ramadan, a month of fasting, in
which they eat no food from sunrise to sunset.
Monotheism very strongly emphasized.
No priests, no idols, no alcohol, pork.
Predestination. Allah leads astray who he will. No free will.
Judgement, heaven and hell, somewhat similar to the New Testament, except heaven
is a very sensuous place with men waited on by beautiful virgins, eating food
like a banquet, etc.
The prophets never sinned. Muslims refuse to accept that Noah got drunk. (Genesis
Jesus was a prophet, similar to Mohammad, but definitely not a savior. He was not ki
lled on a cross.
Muhammad is the fulfillment of John 14:16,17, the comforter who God was to send.
Muhammad the greatest and final prophet.
Works ?salvation.? We are saved by our own righteous life. Allah primarily a god of justice,
not of love.
The doctrine of jihad, or holy war for Allah. Death in jihad is a sure means to going
In fairness, some of the worst aspects of modern Islam are not in the Qur?an?
for example horrendous treatment of women.
Sunni. The orthodox sect. Most Moslems are Sunni. Followed the caliphs, not the family
line of Muhammad.
Shia. Only Muhammad?s direct descendents can lead the true Muslims. They are waiting
for a sort of second return of Muhammad?s descendents to earth: the Mahdi?sort
of like a Messiah concept. Iran, Lebanon, scatterings in other Moslem countries.
These two groups are surprisingly similar in doctrine, and even in practice. Islam is
much more united than ?Christianity.?
Sufis. Moslem mystics and ascetics.