Hi Dr J.  I have just clipped your interpretations of the four parts of the great statue in Daniel for my study: nice summary. But I have been struggling with the origin of the two beasts in Rev 13:1,11. Antichrist-beast comes from the sea – apparently the disorganised nations (whatever they are); but what is the ‘land/earth’ symbol for the False-Prophet-beast? Maybe sea/earth is Gentile/Jews (a common interpretation but it begs the question: why should we equate earth with Israel?)   Your thoughts?


I am copying and pasting notes from my class on the Book of Revelation (available with a power point in the power point section of the site) for chapter 13 below.

The ten horns are either:

1. The first ten kings of Rome (see also Daniel 7:7-8 and 19-25 which says unambiguously that the ten horns are ten kings of the “fourth beast” who is without a doubt Rome. That it is Rome is clear from the Book of Revelation. That Daniel 7 is about Rome is explained in more detail in my book, “Daniel, Prophet to the Nations” (available at The ten kings/horns are Augustus, Tiberius, Caludius, Caligula, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian and Titus. In this case, the “sea” is the many nations which were conquered and incorporated into the Roman Empire.


2. Ten client-kings who were subjugated to Rome/the beast and who helped Rome to subjugate and destroy the church. This is the more likely option, as described below.

As for Antichrist, be careful here, because the Antichrist is not even mentioned in Revelation 13. The chapter mentions “the beast” which is Rome. It is not the antichrist and there is no indication that “the beast” is the antichrist.

The beast from the earth is Domitian. This may sound surprising, but the details of the prophecy in Revelation 13 make this fairly clear. See the notes below for explanation.

One thing I can say with great certainty is that “the earth” is not Israel. I know of no biblical reason to reach that conclusion. You must have read that is some premillenial writings, but I reject the premillenial assumptions completely for very good reasons. See my notes on Revelation for why this is not correct interpretation of Revelation.

I hope this helps.

John Oakes

CH 13

An ominous verse: And the dragon stood on the shore of the sea. Satan is looking out over the nations.

In Revelation “seas” or “the sea” is the restless nations.

Rev 17:15 “waters” = nations and peoples. Isaiah 57:20 agrees, as does Is 17:15 Daniel 7:2 The four world empires come up out of the sea.

Rev 13:1 ten horns and seven heads. On each head a blasphemous name. For Domitian this was “Our Lord and God Domitian.” The Roman emperors were deified.

13:2 A beast comes “out of the sea” to help the Serpent. This beast is Rome!

A very fierce beast. Each head has a blasphemous name. Leopard coloring, bear paws and lion mouth. (Note Daniel 7: lion, bear, leopard are the three other beasts—the three other powers which came before Rome: Babylon, Persia/Media, Greece. All these nations are of the same sort, in the end. In a sense, Rome is the personification of all four.)

The ten horns are the client-kings who help the beast (Rome) control the empire. Rev 17:12ff supports this. “The ten horns you saw are ten kings who have not yet received a kingdom, but who for one hour will receive authority as kings along with the beast…. They will make war against the Lamb, but the Lamb will overcome them.”

Alternatively (but less likely) they could be Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian and Titus—the ten kings of Daniel 7.

The seven heads are Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian and Titus.

In Revelation 17:9,10 they are the seven hills of Rome and the seven kings.

Galba, Otho and Vitellius all ruled for only a few months. All claimed the Roman power, but it is debatable whether they were Roman Emperors (heads). See Suetonius.

v. 2 Where did the Beast from the sea (Rome) get its power? From the Serpent (Satan)

v. 3 One of the heads had a fatal wound. Nero who, when he died, ended the Claudian dynasty. But the head (and its persecuting nature) had been revived in the Flavian Dyasty. (“the fatal wound has been healed”)

Rev 17:11 The beast who once was (Nero), and now is not is an eighth king (Domitian).

v. 5 Given temporary power to rule to the beast (Rome) (42 months). (given by the serpent, but allowed by God)

v. 7 Domitian is given temporary power to make war against the Saints and to (appear to) defeat them. Q: Who gave him this power? Satan did, but God allowed it.

v. 8 Everyone (except the Saints) will worship the beast. This was literally true, as all Romans were allowed to worship pretty much whoever or whatever they liked, as long as they also worshiped Roma—the God of Rome.

Assurance. Those who do not worship the beast have their names written in the Lamb’s book—the Lamb slain from the creation of the world. What an amazing teaching!!! (1 Pet 2:20 He was chosen before the creation of the world, but was revealed in these last times for your sake)

v. 10 Reality check: Some of you will be put in prison. Some of you will be martyred.

“This calls for patient endurance.” I would say so.

Q: What would you do if you got a letter informing you of this!!!!

Rev 13:11-18 The Beast out of the Earth: Domitian. The eleventh horn of Daniel 7—the one who uprooted three of the horns/kings, which explains why he is the eighth in Rev. 17 and why there are seven heads in Rev 13. The eighth king of Rev 17:11 He exercised all the authority of the first beast (Rome)

It may also represent the religious authorities within Rome which promoted Caesar worship. The Concillia or Commune, who were known for tricks like ventriloquism to make statues speak (v. 15).
v. 11 this beast looks like a lamb, but speaks like a dragon. Looks harmless, but watch out. It is “religious Rome”

13:14 is a rather straightforward reference to Domitian (and Galerian and Decius and Diocletian for that matter)

13:15 He gave breath to the first beast (Nero). He revived the persecution begun by Nero.

This beast is “the lawless one” of 2 Thess 2:3-4

13:17 There may not have been a literal “mark” on people’s forehead, but there was an official document declaring that the holder had made obeisance to Domitian.

The “mark” of the beast might be coins with the head of Domitian, declaring him to be Lord and God. There is some evidence that the early church refused to use these coins in commerce, as did the Jews, who refused to use them in the temple.

Domitian’s number is 666 He is totally Satan’s man (as will be Galerian, Diocletian and Decius).

Is 666 the antichrist? Probably no, as there is literally zero indication in the Bible that they are one and the same. Antichrist is not found in Revelation (1 John 2:22) .

“On his right hand or on his forehead” Deut 11:18 You shall put these words of mine in your heart and soul, and you shall bind them as a sign (mark) on your hand and fix them as an emblem on your forehead.
Ex 13:9,16 It shall serve for you as a sign (mark) on your hand and as a reminder (mark) on your foreheads, so that the teaching of the Lord may be on your lips.

Rev 13:18 Your opponent is evil and he is human. Domitian.


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